Water

Results: 1 - 10 of 18
  • Climate change and water
    (Water)
    Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC Technical Paper VI) Bryson Bates ,Zbyszek Kundzewicz ,Shaohong Wu, Jean PalutikofObservational records and climate projections provide abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change, with wide-ranging consequences for human societies and ecosystems. 1 See Box 1.1. 2 Numbers inside square brackets relate to sections in the main body of the Technical Paper. 3 Projections considered are based on the range of non-mitigation scenarios developed by the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). 4 This statement excludes changes in non-climatic factors, such as irrigation. 5 These projections are based on an ensemble of climate models using the mid-range SRES A1B non-mitigation emissions scenario. Consideration of the range of climate responses across SRES scenarios in the mid-21st century suggests that this conclusion is applicable across a wider range of scenarios. Observed warming over several decades has been linked to changes in the large-scale hydrological cycleClimate model simulations for the 21st century are consistent in projecting precipitation increases in high latitudes (very likely) and parts of the tropics, and decreases in some subtropical and lower mid-latitude regions
  • Smart Water Harvesting Solutions Examples of innovative low-cost technologies for rain, fog, runoff water and groundwater
    (Water)
    Author: Netherlands Water Partnership,This booklet describes a number of creative solutions in situations where there seems to be no water. It shows practical efforts to create water, especially in drought prone areas. It does not limit itself to the act of harvesting, but includes capturing water during periods of rain, so that it is available for periods of drought. Many of the technologies highlighted in this booklet are traditional, but neglected in the modern world, as people try to become less dependent on the wiles of nature. There is an increasing awareness that rather than fighting against nature, people should co-operate with it. That is what water harvesting tries to do. The examples illustrate how the revival and promotion of small-scale technologies can contribute to the provision of drinking water, the development of agriculture and other income-generating activities in drought-prone areas. Water conservation and water harvesting techniques provide a key to development and as such contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality FOURTH EDITION
    (Water)
    Author: WHOThis edition of the Guidelines for drinking-water quality integrates the third edition, which was published in 2004, with both the first addendum to the third edition, published in 2006, and the second addendum to the third edition, published in 2008. It supersedes previous editions of the Guidelines and previous International Standards. This edition of the Guidelines further develops concepts, approaches and information introduced in previous editions, including the comprehensive preventive risk management approach for ensuring drinking-water quality that was introduced in the third edition. It considers: drinking-water safety, including minimum procedures and specific guideline values and how these are intended to be used; approaches used in deriving the Guidelines, including guideline values; microbial hazards, which continue to be the primary concern in both developing and developed countries. Experience has shown the value of a systematic approach to securing microbial safety. This edition builds on the preventive principles introduced in the third edition on ensuring the microbial safety of drinkingwater through a multiple-barrier approach, highlighting the importance of source water protection; climate change, which results in changing water temperature and rainfall patterns, severe and prolonged drought or increased flooding, and its implications for water quality and water scarcity, recognizing the importance of managing these impacts as part of water management strategies; chemical contaminants in drinking-water, including information on chemicals not considered previously, such as pesticides used for vector control in drinkingwater; revisions of existing chemical fact sheets, taking account of new scientific information; and, in some cases, reduced coverage in the Guidelines where new information suggests a lesser priority; those key chemicals responsible for large-scale health effects through drinkingwater exposure, including arsenic, fluoride, lead, nitrate, selenium and uranium, providing guidance on identifying local priorities and on management; the important roles of many different stakeholders in ensuring drinking-water safety. This edition furthers the discussion introduced in the third edition of the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in ensuring drinking-water safety; guidance in situations other than traditional community supplies or managed utilities, such as rainwater harvesting and other non-piped supplies or dual piped systems.
  • WATER AND CLIMATE Blue book
    (Water)
    Author: the Ministry Delegate in charge of Water, Kingdom of Morocco; the Ministry of Environment, Energy and the Sea, France; the World Water Council.Climate change is an undeniable reality, which affects mainly water resources. The impacts and consequences of this change on the water cycle are related mainly to variations in the average and the geographical distribution of rains, the upsurge in droughts and heavy precipitations. The situation with real socioeconomic impact is beginning to significantly affect countries financially, by challenging governments and the international community for the implementation of particular resilience actions in Africa, where 25% of the current population suffers from water stress and the third of it lives in areas that are subject to droughts and which have become vulnerable to its impacts. Climate change also affects aquatic ecosystems and other sectors related to water including energy, food and health. Hence the need for coherent and integrated policies for these sectors to face the challenges and pressures imposed by climate change. On the other hand, climate change increases uncertainty in the field of water. It also introduces new constraints and exacerbates those that are already impacting governments and communities in the water field. Only an integrated and sustainable water management can help mankind to meet the challenges related to water availability, changes, extreme weather events (floods and droughts) and the uncertainty of the resource, in order to ensure water security and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Addressing climate change and achieving the SDGs, requires the implementation of structuring actions and achieving significant investments in infrastructure and new technologies in the field of water. To this end, a central place must be given to water in the negotiations of the Parties under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. In fact, during the 21th session of the Conference of Parties (COP) and the 11th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), which took place in Paris in 2015, water was significantly present through a number of initiatives. COP 21 resulted in a historic agreement called Ā«Paris AgreementĀ», to fight climate change and unleash new measures and investments for a resilient and sustainable future.
  • The costs of industrial water pollution on people, planet and profit
    (Water)
    Author: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).Industrial pollution is a severe threat to water resources around the world, particularly in the Global South where the view prevails that pollution is the price to pay for progress. This view is usually associated with the ideas that dealing with pollution is too costly, that pollution prevention is too difficult and impractical, and that environmental and social effects can be dealt with in the future. To make matters worse, there is also a general misconception that wastewater treatment plants can eventually deal with all water pollutants, whatever their toxicity. This short-term view has resulted in the widespread dumping of undisclosed and often hazardous chemicals into water. However, when substances with persistent and/or bioaccumulative1 properties remain undetected or ignored in the aquatic environment, longlasting and irreversible environmental and health problems can result. Zero dischargeThe only way to address these hidden dangers in our water is through a preventative approach: Taking action to phase out the use and discharge of hazardous chemicals, rather than attempting to control the damage with endof-pipe treatment methods. Accordingly, Greenpeace is calling for governments to adopt a political commitment to zero discharge2 of all hazardous chemicals within one generation, based on the precautionary principle and a preventative approach to chemicals management. This commitment must be matched with an implementation plan containing short-term targets, a dynamic list of priority hazardous substances requiring immediate action3, and a publicly available register of data about discharge emissions and losses of hazardous substances, such as a Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR)4. Our call for zero discharge is built upon three decades of exposing and addressing the problem of hazardous chemicals. However, rapid industrialisation is now taking place in many parts of the Global South, with seemingly little regard for the painful lessons learnt in the Global North where the pollution caused by hazardous substances has generated enormous economic, environmental and social costs
  • Securing Water and Land in the Tana Basin: a resource book for water managers and practitioners
    (Water)
    Author: UNEPThis manual is about ecosystem management in the Tana Catchment the second largest basin in Kenya with a large variety of landscapes from high potential upland areas to mainly pastoralist arid and semi-arid lowlands. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Adopting it will help to reach a balance between three objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits1 . Ecosystem services are defined as the benefits humans receive from ecological systems and include provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services (MA 2005). An ecosystem service could be food products, but can also describe as more complex functions that benefit human life in an indirect way. Ecosystem services have been categorized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment into four types (see figure 1): Provisioning services are perhaps the most recognizable as benefits to people and can be easily valued in economic terms. These include food (such as fish, but also crops), fibre and fuel, but also genetic material. Regulating services ensure that ecosystems keep on functioning through changes and include climate regulation, water regulation, water purification and waste treatment, erosion regulation, natural hazard regulation, and pollination. Cultural services are non-tangible and hard to put a value on. These services can be spiritual and inspirational, recreational, aesthetic, and educational. Supporting services are functions that provide over a long-term time. They include soil formation and nutrient cycling. Ecosystem services can also be divided into direct market goods (such as water for domestic use or crop yields) and non-market goods (such as biodiversity, or soil formation) (Wilson & Carpenter 1999). Estimating the values of goods and services in an ecosystem helps to make hidden social and environmental cost and benefits visible (Wilson & Carpenter 1999). In some instances, services can be replaced by technology but often only at a higher cost than maintaining the original service (Cairns 1995). It may be a useful thinking exercise to try and value the service. For example, a watersheds purification functions can be monetized and compared to the cost of substituting these by a water treatment facility to provide clean water to a community
  • Adaptation of water resources management to climate change
    (Water)
    Author: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKThis report will help water professionals to identify actions that can be taken to adapt to the changes in the world's water regimes expected to occur over the coming decades. Its origins can be traced back to the World Water Vision, a declaration on global water issues adopted in March 2000 during the Second World Water Forum. The Vision highlighted climate change as one of the major challenges facing water professionals over the next twenty-five years. The World Water Vision coincided with a growing awareness within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on the need to adapt to climate change. Changes to the climate are already leading to more unstable and shifting water regimes around the world. The limited reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that are agreed upon in international negotiations will be inadequate to mitigate their effects. It is becoming apparent that if we cannot prevent the problem, we must adapt to it. IUCN's work on the linkage between water and wetland resources and climate change stems from its engagement in the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. As a long-standing partner of that Convention, IUCN provided technical advice to Parties when they adopted their first resolution on climate change at their seventh Conference of Contracting Parties in 1999. More recently, IUCN prepared the Wetlands and Climate Change report, which provided an analysis of the linkages between the Ramsar Convention and the UNFCCC. Further work conducted by IUCN in partnership with others has unveiled more and more evidence of increasingly unstable and shifting water regimes around the world. Water professionals in most countries are confronted with greater variability in the amount and seasonality of rainfall and stream flows, as well as the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme hydrological events. Their concern is that this variability will increase with a warming world, and place ever increasing challenges on conventional water practices and policies. This book encourages water professionals to continue with, and to strengthen, the changes they are already beginning to make. Climate change reinforces the new style of management that is emerging within the water sector in response to rising demands for water resources. Such a management style moves beyond technical quick fixes to engage with various societal groups in a process to deal with emerging risks and uncertainties. The new management style includes all stakeholders, relies on the capacities of people, encourages joint learning, and invests in managing conflicts. IUCN looks forward to working with water professionals and other partners in catalysing a societywide process for addressing one of the most pressing environmental issues of our time. Only by thinking, working and learning together can we tackle the impacts on water resources and the uncertainties induced by climate change.
  • Climate Change and Sustainable Development
    (Water)
    Author: Tariq Banuri and Hans OpschoorThe purpose of this working paper is to raise critical issues on the relationship between climate policy and sustainable development. It criticizes current policy approaches, including that reflected in the Kyoto Protocol, on the grounds that they have inadvertently resulted in the placing of climate policy and development into separate boxes. Policy experience on climate stabilization has developed largely within the institutional, economic, and political context of industrialized countries, but policy analysis now needs to turn single-mindedly to the situation of developing countries. In the future, it would be necessary not only to induce adjustment in industrialized countries, but also to re-orient the growth process in the developing world towards de-carbonization. To this end, the working paper concludes with the identification of a set of questions for wider and urgent discussion. To set the stage, Section 1 provides a brief summary of recent developments in the climate literature. There is virtually no doubt today that climate change is already happening, that it is caused by the emission and accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, that it poses the gravest of dangers to life on this planet, and that much of its impact is already locked in because of past actions, but the most extreme costs could be avoided if policy responses are put in place immediately. Section 2 moves from climate trends to stabilization, and summarizes global as well national actions (in particular those developed under the Kyoto Protocol) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In retrospect, these have proven highly inadequate and have not produced an appreciable impact. The ideas that are being discussed on how to proceed beyond Kyoto are framed within the same overall approach. Their main weakness is the absence of credible measures that can reassure developing countries that the development agenda will be reconciled and integrated into climate action. De-carbonized economic development requires an approach that goes beyond Kyoto. Instead of separating climate and development, it should separate responsibility (and funding) from action. This implies a shift from the language of emission targets or rights to the language of investment, a language that provides the core of development thinking. A concrete option is to initiate a globally funded public investment program in developing countries, using the example of the Manhattan Project, to deploy available renewable technologies on a massive scale. Section 4 presents some initial ideas on this approach, and recommends research and analysis on critical themes.

 

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