Thematic Areas

Results: 1 - 10 of 89
  • Enabling Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies
    Author: Ingrid Barnsley, Amanda Blank and Adam BrownIEA analyses have consistently pointed to the opportunity for renewable energy and energy efficiency to contribute to energy security, economic development and environmental protection goals, as well as to the crucial role of sound policy for supporting their maximisation. This publication considers policy options for supporting the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET), as well as the surrounding factors that can support or indeed impede the successful implementation of such support policies. Consistent with the IEAs current collaboration with the EBRD, and given the high potential for further RE&EE deployment in these regions, the paper gives particular consideration to the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and the Early Transition Countries (ETC), while drawing on energy policy experiences globally. Given their extensive natural resource bases and projected growth in energy demand, the ETC and SEMED countries represent high priority energy regions. In spite of considerable variations in characteristics such as size, geopolitical circumstances, energy endowment and economic outlook, on the whole, the countries in these regions possess great unexploited potential for both enhanced renewables deployment and for improvements in energy efficiency. It is also notable that, for the most part, these regions are not accessing international climate and clean energy financing to the same degree as some other countries with similar levels of development. Well-designed government support for RE&EE may pave the way for increased access to such financing.
    Author: Kippra and ErcKenyas macro-economic environment has undergone significant reforms since the mid 1980s aimed at improving economic performance, attract investments, increase employment opportunities and incomes, and improve the productivity and efficiency of public investments. These reforms have inter alia included privatization by the Government, liberalization of commodity prices and exchange rate regimes and tacit withdrawal of the public sector in activities of a commercial nature. In tandem with reforms in other sectors of the economy, the Government has also undertaken structural reforms in the commercial segments of the energy sector, namely electricity and petroleum, with a view to improving the operational efficiency in the sector by eliminating distortions that existed hitherto, induce competition and allow energy prices to move in consonance with market fundamentals and attract investments into the sector. As Kenya aspires to be a middle income economy as envisaged in Vision 2030, it faces an enormous task of meeting energy needs due to the high expectations in growth to power the economy. The country therefore needs to come up with strategies and investment plans to secure sustainable supply of energy to meet the growing demand. The energy sector is considered a key enabler to achieving vision 2030. Electricity, petroleum and renewable energy are the most potential sub sectors. Even though wood fuels are the most consumed fuels in Kenya, petroleum and electricity are the most dominating fuels in the commercial sector. Other major energy consumption sectors apart from commercial sector, are transport, manufacturing and residential sectors. The purpose of this report is to present the findings of a study carried out by the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) on A Comprehensive Study and Analysis on Energy Consumption Patterns in Kenya, commissioned by the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC).
    Author: UNITED NATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMThis report presents the results of a 2015 study of energy efficiency (EE) initiatives undertaken in African countries. This study, commissioned by the Copenhagen Centre on Energy Efficiency (C2E2), focuses on the areas of success, barriers encountered and improvements in access to energy for the general population. The aim of the study is to identify and suggest areas for future engagement in order to accelerate energy efficiency in the region.
    Author: PERIS KASAEEnergy is a critical input to the social economic development of anynation as well as to the protection of the nations environment. It fuels to industry, commerce, Transportation, agriculture and other economic activities. Energy is an essential component for the industrialization process. For a country to industrialize, adequate and affordable energy supply is a pre-requisite. The energy sector mainly comprises of electricity, petroleum and renewable energy (geothermal, wind, solar, biomass). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between energy efficiency and operation performance in manufacturing firms in Kenya. The target population was 70 manufacturing firms out of 735 manufacturing firms as listed by Kenya Association of Manufacturers with a bias to firms that had conducted energy Audits. Three Key performance indicators to measure operation performance were used namely: Production, Electrical energy consumption and Specific electrical energy intensity ( SEEI). Data was analyzed in terms of the baseline data and the current data. The baseline data been the data before implementation of EEMs by the companies while the current data been the data collected in after implementation of EEMs. The data was analyzed using regression model. To test the relevance of the linear best-fit curve for energy consumption, production and SEEI, the Pearson correlation coefficient for both baseline and current data were examined. The study established a considerable use of EEMs by manufacturing firms in Kenya with 92% of the targeted firms having implemented EEMS. The study also established a positive relationship between the use of EEMs and operation performance. However, this observation was not conclusive since some companies displayed weak correction coefficients of the variables both at baseline and current level suggesting a need for further analysis.
    Author: Mr. Arindam Basu and Dr. James D. Marett at Grue + Hornstrup; and Mr. Stefan Wehner at the greenwerkThe successful conclusion of the Paris Agreement calls for 190+ parties/countries to participate in climate actions through adaptation and mitigation, limiting the effects of global temperature increase. One of the frameworks (Article 6, Paragraph 8 of the Paris Agreement) recommended under mitigation calls for non-market based approaches to assist implementation of their nationally determined contributions. (UNFCCC_COP21, 2015). Currently the UNFCCCs Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) framework is ideally placed for developing countries such as Kenya to harness finance, technology, capacity development and facilitate implementation of technical interventions that lead to emission reduction and sustainable development. This document follows the NAMA framework and introduces an innovative market based approach through private sector participation for the manufacture and distribution of 1 million units of solar PV-based lanterns and improved cookstoves respectively (collectively referred to as Clean Energy technologies or solutions in this document) in Kenya. This innovative market based approach entails the establishment of 28 Energy Productivity Zones (or EPZs) across Kenya that are self-sufficient in their electricity requirements. The power for the EPZs will be supplied through a solar power plant (with solar panels either installed on the building roof tops or on open ground as appropriate) with a total capacity of 500 kWp for the 28 EPZs. The EPZs will provide infrastructure and support services for the private sector to invest in the manufacture and distribution of the clean energy technologies on a for-profit basis (i.e. operated as business models). The suggested approach looks at creating an appropriate enabling market environment for the private sector to take a lead in promoting Made in Kenya clean energy technologies, leading to sector transformation in addition to emissions reduction from use of clean energy and a corresponding boost to sustainable development. The NAMA proposal explores making available finance through a combination of international grants and loans in addition to contributions (financial and in-kind) by the country. The technical interventions will be supported through a variety of measures to create an enabling market environment. The suggested approach proposed is sustainable, as the focus is on providing access to energy to the people of rural Kenya and in addition to creating and building momentum for a market for clean energy technologies. In order to facilitate the purchase of the technologies this NAMA also provides attractive consumer finance mechanisms, through a revolving loan fund and other measures, that will ensure universal access to both technologies, even for the poorest in Kenya. Finally, the NAMA will also ensure fully integrated and coordinated efforts by both national and county/city/rural governments and the private sector in implementing these objectives and resulting interventions. This document focuses on the key building blocks of a NAMA required to implement the proposed approach and aims to provide national stakeholders and potential donors with detailed information regarding the overall structure.
  • ResouRce and waste management plan 2018
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: The Technical and Environmental AdministrationWaste not, want not! This old saying reminds us to think twice before discarding anything.Some may see waste as something worthless; all we care about is to get rid of it in the easiest possible way. But the resources of the world are not infinite. Therefore we must strive to con sume less in our everyday lives. And what we decide to discard should be given a second life as far as possible. Consuming less does not necessarily mean making sacrifices or having a lower standard of living. it means doing things smarter. Technology has already made much progress that makes our everyday lives easier, allowing us to consume fewer resources. Today the newspaper and music can be downloaded onto our tablet or phone so we can bring it with us wherever we go. This development will continue through innovation and technology.Even if we have already started doing things smarter and consuming fewer resources, our waste bags still fill up rapidly. We make countless trips down to the backyard to find the containers for our recyclables. for most people today it is a matter of course to recycle cardboard, paper, and glass. in the future we will have more containers in the yard for recycling even more kinds of waste. A survey has shown that Copenhageners point to recycling as one of the fields where each citizen should do good for the environment and climate. The same survey indicates that Copenhageners want to have more options for waste separation. The City of Copenhagen wishes to give this option to Copenhageners. The Citys efforts to turn waste into a resource are explained in this plan. When the plan is fully implemented in 2018 i hope that Copenhageners will say: Waste not, want not!
  • Prevention and minimization and environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: UNIn order to quickly respond to the changes in the policy circumstances caused by climate change and the exhaustion of raw material and fossil fuel, the government has adopted a new waste policy direction, which goes beyond preventing pollutionand moves towards the construction of a sustainable resource recycling society, by managing waste as a recyclable resource and improving resource productivity. The policy structure has been modified as well, from one that was focused onreduction, recycling, treatment and disposal, to one that is oriented toward recycling, energy harvesting, and the improvement of treatment and disposal methods.
  • Basic Soil and Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering/Agricultural Water Management and Related Terminology
    Author: Suat Irmak, Professor and Soil and Water Resources and Irrigation Engineer, University of NebraskaLincoln Koffi Djaman, Research Scientist and Soil and Water Resources and Irrigation Engineer Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), B.P. 96 Saint LouiAs stated by one of the pioneer irrigation scientists Orson Winso Israelsen (1887-1968), irrigation is an age-old art that has been influencing the well-being of civilizations for thousands of years. Irrigated agriculture has been a vital part of human civilization and has been significantly contributing to food security and aiding in reducing poverty since its beginning. Today, irrigation continues to play a crucial role in meeting the food and fiber demands of a rapidly growing modern civilization as irrigated agriculture currently contributes to about 40 percent of the world's total food/fiber production on only about 20 percent of the total cultivated land. Currently, a little over 800 million acres of land is irrigated globally with surface irrigation methods being the dominant irrigation methods practiced. A fast-growing world population, coupled with changing climate variables and increasing extreme events (both drought and floods), will likely impose substantial demand on future food and fiber production worldwide, which will, in turn, limit the availability of freshwater in producing agricultural commodities. Increasing extreme events can also increase the uncertainty in food productivity due to the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on water resources and crop response to these changes. Estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; 2010), indicate that the worlds population may reach over 9 billion by year 2050, based on the current rate of population growth. Increasing limitations in freshwater resources, coupled with population growth, have increased the competition for water between various sectors and will likely continue to increase the pressure on all disciplines to use water resources more efficiently. However, this pressure will most likely be imposed on irrigated agriculture more than other sectors because over 70 percent of the total freshwater resources withdrawn worldwide are for irrigated agriculture. Therefore, novel ideas and quality research, as well as effective and carefully designed agricultural water management programs, need to be implemented in production fields. This will enhance crop water productivity (crop water use efficiency) to deal with these important issues and be able to keep pace with increasing food and fiber demand.
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: xxThrough subsidiaries, Waste Management provides waste reduction consulting, collection, transfer, recycling, conversion, resource recovery and disposal services to residential, commercial, industrial and public-sector customers throughout North America. We serve over 21 million customers with environmentally sound management of solid wastes and the transformation of waste into usable resources. We publish a detailed sustainability report every two years. This report updates our 2012 Sustainability Report, providing full-year data for 2012 and 2013 and discussing key developments in 2014 where information was available prior to publication. Notes on the scope of the data are included with the data charts or in endnotes. This report covers Waste Managements wholly owned operations, all of which are located in North America. An Appendix to this report, containing a wealth of supplementary information, can be found on our website. We focus our reporting on the following themes, which we have identified through internal and external consultation to be the most material: Focusing on our customers sustainability needs Reducing and recycling wastes generated by others Converting waste into renewable energy, fuels and chemicals Managing our waste treatment, materials processing and disposal facilities to exceed regulatory obligations Serving as responsible stewards of the land We routinely engage with stakeholders to re-evaluate the sufficiency and appropriateness of our goals and reporting
  • The costs of industrial water pollution on people, planet and profit
    Author: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).Industrial pollution is a severe threat to water resources around the world, particularly in the Global South where the view prevails that pollution is the price to pay for progress. This view is usually associated with the ideas that dealing with pollution is too costly, that pollution prevention is too difficult and impractical, and that environmental and social effects can be dealt with in the future. To make matters worse, there is also a general misconception that wastewater treatment plants can eventually deal with all water pollutants, whatever their toxicity. This short-term view has resulted in the widespread dumping of undisclosed and often hazardous chemicals into water. However, when substances with persistent and/or bioaccumulative1 properties remain undetected or ignored in the aquatic environment, longlasting and irreversible environmental and health problems can result. Zero dischargeThe only way to address these hidden dangers in our water is through a preventative approach: Taking action to phase out the use and discharge of hazardous chemicals, rather than attempting to control the damage with endof-pipe treatment methods. Accordingly, Greenpeace is calling for governments to adopt a political commitment to zero discharge2 of all hazardous chemicals within one generation, based on the precautionary principle and a preventative approach to chemicals management. This commitment must be matched with an implementation plan containing short-term targets, a dynamic list of priority hazardous substances requiring immediate action3, and a publicly available register of data about discharge emissions and losses of hazardous substances, such as a Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR)4. Our call for zero discharge is built upon three decades of exposing and addressing the problem of hazardous chemicals. However, rapid industrialisation is now taking place in many parts of the Global South, with seemingly little regard for the painful lessons learnt in the Global North where the pollution caused by hazardous substances has generated enormous economic, environmental and social costs


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