Resource Based Waste Management

Results: 1 - 10 of 18
  • Solid Waste Management in the World s Cities
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: UN-HABITATThis publication, Solid Waste Management in the World Cities, is the third edition in UN-HABITATs State of Water and Sanitation in the World Cities series. It aims to capture the worlds current waste management trends and draw attention to the importance of waste management, especially regarding its role in reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals. The publication acknowledges the escalating challenges in solid waste management across the globe. It seeks to showcase the good work that is being done on solid waste by cities around the world, large and small, rich and poor. It achieves this by looking at what drives change in solid waste management, how cities find local solutions and what seems to work best under different circumstances. The publication endeavours to help decision-makers, practitioners and ordinary citizens understand how a solid waste management system works and to inspire people everywhere to make their own decisions on the next steps in developing a solution appropriate to their own citys particular circumstances and needs. Most readers will never travel to all the 20 cities featured in this report, but through this publication they will have access to real experiences of people working on the ground. We hope it will provide a reference point for managing solid waste in the worlds cities and towns, and that many will follow in the footsteps of our authors, and we can move to an improved set of global reference data.
  • The New Plastics Economy Rethinking the future of plastics
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: World Economic Forum, 2016Plastics have become the ubiquitous workhorse material of the modern economy combining unrivalled functional properties with low cost. Their use has increased twentyfold in the past half-century and is expected to double again in the next 20 years. Today nearly everyone, everywhere, every day comes into contact with plastics especially plastic packaging, the focus of this report. While delivering many benefits, the current plastics economy has drawbacks that are becoming more apparent by the day. After a short first-use cycle, 95% of plastic packaging material value, or $80120 billion annually, is lost to the economy. A staggering 32% of plastic packaging escapes collection systems, generating significant economic costs by reducing the productivity of vital natural systems such as the ocean and clogging urban infrastructure. The cost of such after-use externalities for plastic packaging, plus the cost associated with greenhouse gas emissions from its production, is conservatively estimated at $40 billion annually exceeding the plastic packaging industrys profit pool. In future, these costs will have to be covered. In overcoming these drawbacks, an opportunity beckons: enhancing system effectiveness to achieve better economic and environmental outcomes while continuing to harness the many benefits of plastic packaging. The New Plastics Economy offers a new vision, aligned with the principles of the circular economy, to capture these opportunities. With an explicitly systemic and collaborative approach, the New Plastics Economy aims to overcome the limitations of todays incremental improvements and fragmented initiatives, to create a shared sense of direction, to spark a wave of innovation and to move the plastics value chain into a positive spiral of value capture, stronger economics, and better environmental outcomes. This report outlines a fundamental rethink for plastic packaging and plastics in general; it offers a new approach with the potential to transform global plastic packaging material flows and thereby usher in the New Plastics Economy
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: Association of Cities and Regions for Recycling(ACRR)This guide seeks to bring together information from many sources to help L/RAs identify the practical issues associated with collecting and processing waste plastics, while identifying the approaches needed to manage and exploit these wastes in ways which best suit their individual characteristics. The objective of this Guide is to offer L/RAs an insight into the socio-political, environmental, economic and technical aspects of waste plastics management, with reference to practical examples and case studies. This Guide will: explain the environmental, economic and social dimensions of waste plastics collection, sorting and recovery help bring about an improvement in the recycling performance of waste plastics in those L/RAs where schemes already exist encourage the development of a broader commitment by L/RAs to plastics recovery and recycling. This Guide has a three-fold structure. The first element gives a general description of waste plastics management in Europe. The second develops more specific information focusing on specific flows or techniques. The third provides illustrations through descriptions of local experiences.
  • Waste Management Options and Climate Change: Final Report
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: Alison Smith, Keith Brown, Steve Ogilvie, Kathryn Rushton and Judith BatesThis document is the final report of a study undertaken for the European Commission Environment Directorate General by AEA Technology to assess the climate change impacts of options for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the EU. The study covers the fifteen member states of the European Union and the time horizon 2000 to 2020. The study is intended to inform developing EU-level waste policy, in terms of climate change impacts only. Climate change impacts are only one of a number of environmental impacts that derive from solid waste management options. Other impacts include health effects attributable to air pollutants such as NOx , SO2 , dioxins and fine particles, emissions of ozone depleting substances, contamination of water bodies, depletion of non-renewable resources, disamenity effects, noise, accidents etc. These environmental impacts are in addition to the socio-economic aspects of alternative ways of managing waste. All of these factors need to be properly considered in the determination of a balanced policy for sustainable waste management, of which the climate change elements are but one aspect. The study is not intended as a tool for municipal or regional waste planning, where local factors, such as the availability of existing waste management facilities and duration of waste management contracts, markets for recyclables, geographic and socio-economic factors, will exert the dominant influence. The study assesses climate change impacts in terms of net fluxes of greenhouse gases from various combinations of options used for the management of MSW. The waste management options considered are: Landfill of untreated waste, Incineration, Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), Composting, Anaerobic Digestion (AD) and Recycling.
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: Luis Fernando Marmolejo RebellónThe significant increase of waste generation, the high variability in terms of the composition of the waste and very important sanitary, environmental, economical and social impacts associated with solid waste management suggest the worldwide population that the proper management of the waste should be the very first priority for the community in general. Although the most adequate option is to avoid the generation of waste, it is necessary to evaluate options to handle the waste already generated. To this effect, depending on local and regional contexts, different hierarchies, policies and handling strategies have been established, ratifying the priority of generation reduction in waste generation and furthermore, placing material recovery as the most adequate option to handle the generated waste, and treatment and disposal in controlled sanitary landfills as alternatives to reduce risks associated with final disposal. Along these lines, this book summarizes the results of investigations and experiences carried out around the world, which were conducted to demonstrate the conditions of waste management and analyze alternatives to avoid generation or to facilitate the management of those already generated; consequently, the book has been divided in three sections. The first section, called Solid Waste Management in different regions of the World. Sustainability strategies, includes six chapters. The first two chapters summarize solid waste management and its sanitary and environmental impacts in regions of the African continent. Chapter 3 includes strategies formulated in Malaysia seeking sustainable solid waste management. The next two chapters show how performances and perceptions of users are fundamental to orient intervention strategies aiming to their success. For the same reason, chapter 6 states experiences and strategies based on conscientization of the public of people to attain methods of waste management that reduce practices that threaten peoples well-being and put pressure for raw materials. The second section contains five chapters and is called Strategies and Applications on material recovery and final solid waste disposition. Keeping in mind the high acknowledgement of composting and recycling as priority options for the use and valorization of recovered materials from waste, chapter 7 presents a global vision of the application of these alternatives in developing countries. Regarding the high degree of application of biological transformation processes for the use of biowaste, X Preface chapter 8 shows a case study developed in Spain evaluating the effect of application of biodegradable transformation products on the soil fauna. Chapters 9 and 10 approach the use of recycled materials; the first one shows the results of recycling material application at a Malaysian university campus and the second shows a review of technologies and business for plastic recycling in Japan. Chapter 11 proposes and evaluates different treatment scenarios and final disposal of wastes in a developing country. The final section Handling of Special and Dangerous Solid Waste consists of four chapters. Chapter 12 evaluates the greenhouse effect of gas emissions from confined livestock operations. The following chapter (chapter 13) shows and evaluates software tools to model agricultural waste. Chapter 14 approaches the management of construction and demolition wastes in Turkey, analyzing generation impacts and evaluating or proposing different handling alternatives. Finally, chapter 15 analyzes handling and impacts on local conditions or electronic wastes in Tanzania.
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: Jochen Krimphoff, PricewaterhouseCoopers, ParisThis sector study assesses the potential economic, social and environmental impacts of an EPA on the agro-industry sector in West Africa (ECOWAS and Mauritania). It begins by identifying priority trade measures and sustainability variables to be considered. It then explores the sustainability impacts of a baseline scenario, which reflects the current status of regional integration and liberalisation between the EU and West Africa. It considers the sustainability impacts of a full liberalisation scenario from both the EU and West Africa. Then, it examines the sustainability impacts of an EPA scenario that contemplates robust regional integration in conjunction with asymmetric tariff reductions, which fully open the EU market but leave some protections in place in West Africa. Finally it makes policy recommendations to promote positive impacts and mitigate any negative impacts. Negotiations for an EPA between West Africa and the EU were launched in Cotonou on 6 October 2003. In August 2004 a revised Road Map for negotiations was agreed which cited overriding objectives for the first year of negotiations (September 2004-September 2005) of improving regional integration and competitiveness of the West African economies. Between 2005 and 2007 the Parties will define the framework for the EPA, present first proposals and complete the negotiations. The choice of agro-industry for this sector study stems from the fact that agriculture generates 30% to 40% of GDP and employs between 60% and 70% of the working population in the region. Because most of the poor are located in rural areas, agriculture plays a key role in poverty alleviation. Agricultural commodities are the second largest exports from West Africa to the EU (behind petroleum oils, gases and other hydrocarbons) yet most are exported with little value added locally. West African countries are missing an opportunity to produce higher value products, provide employment in agro-industry, and enhance incomes both for farmers and workers. While an EPA could present opportunities to develop agro-industry and exports, liberalisation raises concerns about competition with local products and adapting existing production in West Africa to meet EU requirements.
  • How to develop a waste management and disposal strategy
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: The Christian Institute of Purchase and SupplyThe true cost of waste is not simply the cost of discarded materials - it encompasses inefficient use of raw materials, unnecessary use of energy and water, faulty products, waste disposal of by-products, waste treatment and wasted labour. The actual cost of such waste for UK companies is typically 4 - 5% of turnover, and can be as high as 10% [1]. In 2004 the UK produced about 335 million tonnes of waste (Figure 1). This includes 220 million tonnes of controlled wastes from households, commerce and industry (including construction and demolition wastes). Household wastes represent about 9 per cent of total waste produced in the UK [2]. Therefore there is a significant role for businesses to play in reducing the waste that we produce in the UK.The European Union suggests that every year 2 billion tonnes of waste are produced in the Member States, and this figure is rising steadily. They suggest that the best solution to this rising mountain of waste is to prevent its initial production, reintroducing it into the product cycle by recycling components where there are ecologically and economically viable methods of doing so [3]. A growing body of national, European and international law now regulates the manner in which wastes are disposed of. These legislative constraints are enforced by social, fiscal and commercial pressures. This environmental legislation is making the reduction and management of waste streams an important issue even for organisations in the supply chain such as wholesalers and retailers, who merely pass through materials that will ultimately become waste. Waste management has become a complex area, legally, technically and commercially. Very few organisations can still rely on the waste collection services provided through local authorities as a complete answer to their waste management obligations. Thus many firms need to identify and contract one or more reputable, licensed, specialist companies for the disposal of their waste, or discharging their legal obligations. A key development in waste management is the focus on preventing the production of waste through waste minimisation and the re-use of waste materials through recycling. This links directly to procurement issues, where careful selection of materials, suppliers, process redesign for disassembly and reverse logistics can all reduce the amount of wastes produced or facilitate recycling and re-use. This booklet focuses on the management of solid wastes and contained liquids in UK businesses. The guidance is also not primarily aimed at local authorities. This booklet is intended for guidance only and as part of a first stage in developing a waste management strategy for your organisation. Please note that the booklet offers guidance based on the current legal position, but this may vary depending on whether your organisation is based in England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. Readers are directed towards the resources available for them to identify their specific waste management requirements and should confirm their legal obligations with the relevant agencies
  • ResouRce and waste management plan 2018
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: The Technical and Environmental AdministrationWaste not, want not! This old saying reminds us to think twice before discarding anything.Some may see waste as something worthless; all we care about is to get rid of it in the easiest possible way. But the resources of the world are not infinite. Therefore we must strive to con sume less in our everyday lives. And what we decide to discard should be given a second life as far as possible. Consuming less does not necessarily mean making sacrifices or having a lower standard of living. it means doing things smarter. Technology has already made much progress that makes our everyday lives easier, allowing us to consume fewer resources. Today the newspaper and music can be downloaded onto our tablet or phone so we can bring it with us wherever we go. This development will continue through innovation and technology.Even if we have already started doing things smarter and consuming fewer resources, our waste bags still fill up rapidly. We make countless trips down to the backyard to find the containers for our recyclables. for most people today it is a matter of course to recycle cardboard, paper, and glass. in the future we will have more containers in the yard for recycling even more kinds of waste. A survey has shown that Copenhageners point to recycling as one of the fields where each citizen should do good for the environment and climate. The same survey indicates that Copenhageners want to have more options for waste separation. The City of Copenhagen wishes to give this option to Copenhageners. The Citys efforts to turn waste into a resource are explained in this plan. When the plan is fully implemented in 2018 i hope that Copenhageners will say: Waste not, want not!
  • Prevention and minimization and environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: UNIn order to quickly respond to the changes in the policy circumstances caused by climate change and the exhaustion of raw material and fossil fuel, the government has adopted a new waste policy direction, which goes beyond preventing pollutionand moves towards the construction of a sustainable resource recycling society, by managing waste as a recyclable resource and improving resource productivity. The policy structure has been modified as well, from one that was focused onreduction, recycling, treatment and disposal, to one that is oriented toward recycling, energy harvesting, and the improvement of treatment and disposal methods.
    (Resource Based Waste Management)
    Author: xxThrough subsidiaries, Waste Management provides waste reduction consulting, collection, transfer, recycling, conversion, resource recovery and disposal services to residential, commercial, industrial and public-sector customers throughout North America. We serve over 21 million customers with environmentally sound management of solid wastes and the transformation of waste into usable resources. We publish a detailed sustainability report every two years. This report updates our 2012 Sustainability Report, providing full-year data for 2012 and 2013 and discussing key developments in 2014 where information was available prior to publication. Notes on the scope of the data are included with the data charts or in endnotes. This report covers Waste Managements wholly owned operations, all of which are located in North America. An Appendix to this report, containing a wealth of supplementary information, can be found on our website. We focus our reporting on the following themes, which we have identified through internal and external consultation to be the most material: Focusing on our customers sustainability needs Reducing and recycling wastes generated by others Converting waste into renewable energy, fuels and chemicals Managing our waste treatment, materials processing and disposal facilities to exceed regulatory obligations Serving as responsible stewards of the land We routinely engage with stakeholders to re-evaluate the sufficiency and appropriateness of our goals and reporting


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