Governance

Results: 1 - 10 of 39
  • Making our cities attractive and sustainable
    (Governance)
    Author: European UnionCities make up only two percent of the earths surface, yet they are home to over half of the worlds population.In Europe, the proportion of urban dwellers is even higher. Today, nearly 75% of Europeans live in cities and urbanareas, and by 2020 this is expected to rise to 80%.People choose to live in urban areas so they can have a better quality of life. They want to be at the heart ofeconomic activity, and to have more job opportunities and other social and economic advantages. However, cityliving brings a range of challenges. While living in close proximity to our daily activities can lead to more resourceefficiency and so contribute to sustainability, other factors such as air pollution can be far more acute in cities.Overcrowding, traffic pollution and noise, and industrial emissions are just a few of the issues that have to beconstantly monitored and addressed to achieve a high quality of life without high environmental costs. But doingthis will also bring benefits beyond city borders.The European Union is committed to making Europes cities healthy, attractive and sustainable, and to improvingcitizens quality of life, now and for the future. Over the last 50 years, European cities have seen dramaticimprovements in terms of mobility, green areas and waste management, and this has contributed to a significantimprovement in living standards. However, Europes cities still face a number of environmental challenges whichinfluence the everyday lives of millions of Europeans and these often highly political issues need to be tackledthrough cooperation between local, national and EU authorities and their stakeholders.In line with the principle of subsidiarity, the EU works closely with Member States and local authorities to addressthese challenges and ensure a high level of protection for citizens who live and work in urban environments. Itpromotes best practices and fosters an ethic of sharing of experiences and information among local governmentsworking to make their cities sustainable.The EU also acts in several other important ways: setting policies, adopting legislation including minimum qualitystandards, encouraging cooperation, and providing financial resources to support initiatives, notably in lessadvantaged areas of Europe. A key feature of many of the EUs laws and policies in areas such as environmentalprotection, regional development and transport, are measures aimed specifically at protecting and managing theurban environment.This brochure reviews the many ways in which the EU supports citizens and local governments in their efforts tomake our cities and towns clean and healthy, green and pleasant, efficient and sustainable, well-managed anddemocratic.The EUs policies and measures in support of a quality urban environment for citizens are continuously evolving.As new issues come to the fore, additional policies and programmes are being developed to keep our urbanenvironments clean, green and healthy
  • A guidebook to the Green Economy
    (Governance)
    Author: Cameron Allen and Stuart Clouth, UN Division for Sustainable Development,This document aims to provide an overview of recent literature on Green Economy and the related concepts of Green Growth and LowCarbon Development (and other variations such as lowemissions development or lowcarbon growth). The overview provides a brief history of these concepts and brings together recent publications from international organisations, thinktanks, experts, political groups, governments, nongovernment organisations and others, most of which are freely available on the Internet. Recent national green economy, green growth and lowcarbon development strategies are also provided. In most cases, a web link and citation have been provided so that the reader can find out more information or reference the document as necessary.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES AND ADAPTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    (Governance)
    Author: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeThe United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat has produced this book to highlight the concerns and needs of developing countries in adapting to the effects of climate change. This book outlines the impact of climate change in four developing country regions: Africa, Asia, Latin America and small island developing States; the vulnerability of these regions to future climate change; current adaptation plans, strategies and actions; and future adaptation options and needs. The book draws heavily on information provided by Parties to the UNFCCC, particularly that provided at three regional workshops held in Africa, Asia and Latin America and one expert meeting held in small island developing States during 2006 20071 , as mandated by the Buenos Aires programme of work on adaptation and response measures (decision 1/CP.10 of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC)2 , as well as information in national communications3 and national adaptation programmes of action4 submitted to the UNFCCC, reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) and other sources, as referenced
  • NEEDS FOR THE GREEN ECONOMY
    (Governance)
    Author: Publications Office of the European UnionEnvironmental challenges raise serious concerns for the welfare of current and future generations. Responses should be driven by independent but commonly reinforcing policies for environment, energy, transportation, employment, and training. International organisations are joining their forces to help realise the potential for green jobs with the participation of employers and employees. The initiative New skills for new jobs: anticipating and matching labour market and skills needs, launched by the European Commission (1 ) responds to the Councils (Education, Youth and Culture, November 2007 and Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs, June 2008) and European Council (December 2007, March 2008) requests to the Commission to present a comprehensive assessment of future skills requirements in Europe up to 2020 and to propose further steps to anticipate future needs. Strengthening international cooperation with global partners is crucial to address the impact of climate change and the economic crisis.
  • WORKING TOWARDS A BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GREEN ECONOMY:
    (Governance)
    Author: First published in December 2011 by the United Nations Environment Management Group. © 2011 United Nations all rights reserved worldwideA green economy is an approach to achieving sustainable development. It requires breaking away from resource-intensive growth models, a transformation of consumption and production into more sustainable patterns and increased value added created and reinvested in resource-rich supplier communities in the developing world. The context for this approach is the increasing resource intensity of consumption in developed countries even though their production is becoming less resource intensive, which implies the shifting of environmental impact to other countries through international trade. At the same time, the resource intensity of both consumption and production in developing countries may increase in absolute terms in their industrialization process. These trends tend to exacerbate resource constraints and break the planetary boundaries.
  • A Compilation of Green Economy Policies, Programs, and Initiatives from Around the World
    (Governance)
    Author: World Resource InstituteThe purpose of this compilation is to highlight examples of "Green Economy" policies, programs, and initiatives taking place around the world. In recent years, the concept of the Green Economy has emerged as a potential remedy to some of the key market and institutional failures that characterize the conventional development model, and as a more effective pathway to advancing economic, social, and environmental goals. Green Economy in the context of poverty eradication and sustainable development will be one of two specific themes discussed at the Earth Summit 2012 (Rio+20), the other being the institutional framework for sustainable development. While broad consensus on how to define the Green Economy is still emerging, it is nonetheless possible to survey the rapidly proliferating international landscape of case studies under the Green Economy banner and identify their contribution to sustainable development. There are various ways to categorize these case studies by geography, by broad sector of the economy, by policy approach (e.g., taxation, expenditure, regulation), or by type of sponsoring institution. This compilation provides information on each, but is organized primarily by sector and geography in order to illustrate the diversity of actors and approaches across the globe. Each example is categorized into one dominant economic sector, although it is recognized that many of these case studies promote Green Economy objectives in more than one sector. In this compilation, not every Green Economy sector is equally represented. Nor is the list exhaustive or comprehensive. The case examples presented here were selected to reflect geographic diversity, and are limited to those examples with demonstrable benefits in each of the three sustainability domains economic, social, and environmental and those with clear links to public policy. The case examples in this compilation are organized first by sector and then by geographic location. Each example provides a brief description of the case study and identifies specific policy changes that made it possible. The compilation also discusses major economic, social, and environmental outcomes. At the end, the compilation provides important links for more information about each case example. The compilation is a work in progress that will be supplemented as new Green Economy initiatives unfold in the years ahead.
  • FRAMEWORK FOR A GREEN ECONOMY TRANSITION T O W A R D S A L O W - C A R B O N, C L I M A T E - R E S I L I E N T A N D R E S O U R C E - E F F I C I E N T C I T Y
    (Governance)
    Author: C I T Y O F T S H W A N E F R A M E W O R K F O R A G R E E N E C O N O M Y T R A N S I T I O NTo date, the worlds economy has been resource intensive and economic development has often led to increased poverty and a widening of the gap between the rich and the poor. Traditional economic growth strategies and approaches have undervalued ecological goods and services, which form the basis of all economic activity. A green economy, on the other hand, aims to improve the efficiency of natural resource use so as to improve human well-being and reduce ecological scarcities and environmental risks. This document, the final draft of the Green Economy Strategic Framework for the City of Tshwane (the Strategic Framework) aims to provide a strategic guide for low-carbon, equitable economic development that can enhance Tshwanes transition to a green economy and facilitate a sustainable development path. This section outlines how the green economy concept developed in response to the worlds growing need for sustainable development. It provides a national and provincial perspective to better outline how a green economy can be achieved, and describes a policy that can facilitate the transition to a green economy.
  • THE GREEN ECONOMY BOON OR BANE?
    (Governance)
    Author: Dhaka BangladeshOver the last couple of years, the word Green has been found in a prolific use from a biological chlorophyllous colour pigment to an economy wide implication. Traditionally, Green is used to represent the Nature. With an increased attention to environment for the last few years, in response to mounting threat of climate change, it is not surprising to call for a holistic nature oriented approach that could equally protect environment as well as livelihood. However, skeptics are also large in number, who have been showing their reservations in this much widespread use of the word Green based on antiquated ethical question whether it is going to become a new shrewd approach for industrialized countries to accumulate wealth or it is really useful to protect our over-degraded nature?
  • PASTORALISM AND THE GREEN ECONOMY
    (Governance)
    Author: ©2014 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, United Nations Environment ProgrammeThe Green Economy concept has recently gained significant traction due to mounting global fears over multiple crises of climate change, energy, food and financial systems. Transitioning towards a Green Economyan economic system in which material wealth does not increase environmental risk, ecological scarcity or social disparitywill require growth strategies in which production and consumption does not continue to come at the expense of natural capital and social equity. In the livestock sector this requires a three pronged approach: reduced consumption of livestock products; greening the intensive system as much as possible; capitalising on the inherent sustainability of pastoralism for local, regional and international markets. Three principal elements are essential to understand the role of pastoralism in delivering sustainable outcomes: (i) the contribution of pastoralism to the maintenance of natural capital; (ii) pastoralisms resource efficiency and sustainable production in highly variable dryland environments; and (iii) the conditions that enable pastoralism to deliver on its green economy potential. The objective of this study is to review the state of knowledge on these elements and reveal the key priorities for enhancing pastoralisms role within the transition to a Green Economy.
  • Migration, Environment and Climate Change: assessing the evidence
    (Governance)
    Author: Frank Laczko and Christine AghazarmThis book focuses on seven key areas of research relating to the topic of migration, the environment and climate change, covering issues such as data challenges, research methods, sudden environmental and slow on set events, and policy responses. The focus is not limited to climate change as much of the research literature tends to focus on migration and the wider concept of environmental change. The book is mainly focused on the impact of environmental/climate change on migration given the current policy interest in this issue, but it is recognized that there is a considerable body of literature on the impact of migration and refugee movements, on the environment (see Bilsborrow Chapter 3 in this volume). This book offers a selective review of key research to date on the topic of migration, the environment and climate change within the aforementioned themes. It examines the existing evidence with respect to the ways in which changes in the environment and climate change are affecting the movement of people and the types of policy responses and protection gaps which potentially exist. Furthermore, it offers an overview of innovative approaches to measuring and collecting data on the migration and environment nexus

 

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