Energy

Results: 1 - 10 of 42
  • Strategies for Sustainable Wood fuel Production in Kenya.
    (Energy)
    Author: Githiomi J.K Oduor NWood energy provides 70% of Kenyas national energy needs and it is expected to continue as the countrys main source of energy for the foreseeable future. Wood is the standard cooking fuel for the majority of Kenyan households and also an important energy source for small-scale rural industries. Past studies on supply demand balance of woodfuel have shown a deficit. To address this deficit there is need for a comprehensive wood energy plan with implementation strategies which ensure its sustainable production. This paper outlines some of the strategies that need to be put in place for a sustainable woodfuel production. The strategies are both supply and demand oriented which are aimed at either increasing the supply or reducing the demand. The supply strategies include; enhancing on-farm tree planting, efficient management of rangelands and woodlands, development of fuelwood plantations by Kenya Forest Service. The demand oriented strategies include ; reducing demand through promotion of more efficient cooking stoves and charcoal conversion kilns, use of alternative sources of energy other than wood. Other strategies include formulation of woodfuel policies that enhances decentralized sustainable wood energy planning at all levels. The later can only be achieved if the wood energy institutional framework is strengthened and facilitated to collect wood energy data to be used in national energy planning alongside the conventional fuels that are currently given more emphasis. The decentralized wood energy planning is important as the strategies to be used for sustainable woodfuel production may vary from one region to the other.
  • Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe.
    (Energy)
    Author: Kati Koponen | Laura Sokka | Olli Salminen | Risto Sievänen | Kim Pingoud | Hannu Ilvesniemi | Johanna Routa | Tanja Ikonen | Tiina Koljonen | Eija Alakangas | Antti Asikainen | Kai SipiläThis report summarises the research-based results on the use of forest biomass for energy in Northern European conditions. It discusses the trade-offs and win-win situations of growing forests, sequestering carbon and using wood for energy production in an economically viable and ecologically sustainable manner. Several recommendations are given: The current Nordic forest industry activities and use of wood residues for energy production offer environmentally and economically sound solutions, where forests produce a continuous sustainable flow of biomass while maintaining, or even growing the carbon stock at the same time. These systems can be further developed, and research should concentrate on finding optimal situations, where forests can fulfil their several roles. x The role of forests in climate change mitigation is twofold: 1) Forests store carbon and act as carbon sinks. 2) Sustainably managed forests serve as a continuous source of biomaterials and bioenergy to displace use of fossil resources. x Continuous growth of forests needs to be ensured by sufficient investments in forests. To benefit both the bioeconomy and climate change mitigation, forest management needs to be optimised for both sustainable flow of biomass and carbon stock maintenance. x Short-term optimisation of using forests only as carbon sinks can lead to unsustainable forest management in the long run.
  • Possible Futures towards a Wood-Based Bioeconomy.
    (Energy)
    Author: Nina Hagemann , Erik Gawel, Alexandra Purkus, Nadine Pannicke, and Jennifer HauckDriven by the growing awareness of the finite nature of fossil raw materials and the need for sustainable pathways of industrial production, the bio-based economy is expected to expand worldwide. Policy strategies such as the European Union Bioeconomy Strategy and national bioeconomy strategies foster this process. Besides the advantages promised by a transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, these processes have to cope with significant uncertainties as many influencing factors play a role, such as climate change, technological and economic development, sustainability risks, dynamic consumption patterns and policy and governance issues. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we identify influence factors for the future development of a wood-based bioeconomy in Germany. Four scenarios are generated based on different assumptions about the development of relevant influence factors. We discuss what developments in politics, industry and society have a central impact on shaping alternative futures. As such, the paper provides a knowledge base and orientation for decision makers and practitioners, and contributes to the scientific discussion on how the bioeconomy could develop. We conclude that the wood-based bioeconomy has a certain potential to develop further, if adequate political framework conditions are implemented and meet voter support, if consumers exhibit an enhanced willingness to pay for bio-based products, and if among companies, a chance-oriented advocacy coalition of bioeconomy supporters dominates over proponents of fossil pathways.
  • Development of Pico-hydropower Plant for Farming Village in Upstream Watershed, Thailand.
    (Energy)
    Author: Sombat ChuenchooklinResearch on the development of Pico-hydropower plant for a farming village in Thailand was carried out. It is one aspect given by the national plan for the renewable technology development with wisely energy utilization from natural resources included wind, water, solar energies, bio-gas, and farm waste according to the Ministry of National Energy reported, respectively. Since, some upstream watersheds in Thailand are potential for the development of the large scale hydropower plants by mean of the dam constructions. However, most of proposed dam sites in the upstream watershed are located within the restricted area as for the forestry and environmental conservation zone according to the national environmental law of conservation. Pico-hydropower plant is more suitable to develop for the economic and farming zones of such watershed. A waterfall site in BanYaeng Village, Nakornthai District in Phitsanulok Province which locates at the upstream of Wangthong Watershed (Sub-basin of Nan River) was selected as the pilot project for the construction of the hydropower plant. The appropriated technology using the centrifugal pumping machine as for the water-turbine connected to a 3-phase motor producing electricity of 380 volts at revolution of 1500 rpm was applied. The system was based on low cost of construction, local materials, and easy construction and maintenance systems. Its performance of the overall systems by mean of the efficiency was found to 52% resulted by the effective head of 8.4 meters, flow rate of 15 liters per second, and electrical power production of 644 watts which can be used for the light, some houseware appliances, and some farming equipments. It can be applied to other small farming villages in any upstream watershed with enough head and flow rate in the stream over the year round in order to save investment cost for farming systems with the clean technology. However, it can be transferred to larger farming villages if higher head and larger flow rate in the natural stream or river were found which depended on the country and topography.
  • Factors Influencing Household Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Kenya
    (Energy)
    Author: National Environment Trust Fund (NETFUND) and Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI)The world ratified the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that focuses on environmentalaspects of development in 2016 following the retiring of the Millennium Development goals thathad been adopted in 2000. The SDGs call for critical policy shift in addressing the developmentchallenges as they are known today, in particular the maintenance of sustainable environment inthe face of increasing energy demand. This is in order to ensure sustainable consumption andproduction pattern and take urgent action to combat climate change. To achieve development,Kenya as a country has to address the issue of energy use and mix. The countrys medium term plan2013-2017 recognizes the need for adoption of renewable energy that can save the environmentwhere the current forest cover at 11% is still below globally recommended level of 15%. Thisproject on factors influencing the adoption of renewable energy in rural households was carried outbetween May-August 2016 as a pilot study. This was to establish why the majority of Kenyans donot subscribe to the sustainable energy technologies despite the governments efforts in promotingthe use of these environmental friendly technologies.The study found that the country is still reeling from massive forest destruction as majority (95%) of Kenyan families in rural areas use fuelwood as their primary source of energy. Similarly,the countrys development agenda was found to be under threat since the family size had anaverage of 5-9 household members with a significant population of 2% having more than 10family members from a nuclear family perspective. This is despite existence of almost free familyplanning services which are also devolved to the counties. Such large family sizes are economicallychallenging to any meaningful development for the country since it strains the available resources.Interestingly, the study also found that economic activities, illiteracy and income as well as adoptionof renewable energy had a common denominator as those households with family head who wereilliterate (13 %) had very low disposable income and had no clue on RE technologies. In order forthe country to steady and sustain meaningful development in both social and economic front, thechallenges as found in this study should be addressed from both national and county governmentperspectives in order to develop a common approach to address them. Otherwise, the attainmentof MTP2 objectives and the SDGs 2015 might remain a pipe dream in most sectors.This study needs to be replicated in all the other rural counties in order to establish whethersimilarities with the current findings exist. This report gives the first comprehensive study coveringthe adoption of RE technologies in rural households in Kenya. It will offer a window to thegovernment and development partners where interventions are needed to break the vicious cycleof underdevelopment and energy challenges.
  • Energy, Climate Change & Environment
    (Energy)
    Author: International Energy AgencyThe historic Paris Agreement on climate change sets the course for a fundamental transformation of the global economy over the next decades. The Agreements overarching goal of limiting global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C will entail profound changes in the global energy system. Achieving the deep cuts in global carbon emissions that this vision requires is no small task given the enormous challenge of implementing and eventually exceeding current country climate pledges. This publication examines key sectors, technologies, and policy measures that will be central in the transition to a lowcarbon energy system. It addresses the following questions: n What are the roles of coal and gas in meeting the stringent decarbonisation requirements for the power sector consistent with IEA modelling of global climate goals? n What are moderate carbon prices accomplishing in the electricity sector, and how can they be helpful as part of a package of other policies? n Where are the opportunities for expanding renewables and energy efficiency, and what policies and regulatory frameworks are needed to boost these low-carbon energy sources? n How can state-owned companies, which produce a large share of global GHG emissions but are also major developers of clean energy, be encouraged to play a more effective role in the energy transition? This report also looks at building climate resilience in the energy sector, and the use of tracking tools and metrics to monitor the progress of energy sector decarbonisation. Finally, it provides global energy and emissions data, including interregional comparisons and in-depth analysis for ten regions.
  • 2020 vision: Saving our energy
    (Energy)
    Author: European Commission: The European Union is facing unprecedented energy challenges. These are the result of its increased dependence on energy imports, as well as concerns about supplies of fossil fuels and the effects of climate change. Nevertheless, Europe continues to waste at least a fifth of its energy, just through sheer inefficiency. And this is despite the fact that saving energy is by far the most effective way to simultaneously improve security of energy supply and to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Saving energy also helps to foster economic competitiveness and to stimulate the development of leading edge markets for energy-efficient technologies and products. EU Heads of State or Government have stressed the need to increase energy efficiency, and the EU intensified its efforts as the European Commission presented in October 2006 a wide-ranging action plan for energy efficiency. The action plan outlines a framework of policies and measures designed to realise the estimated savings potential of over 20 % of the EUs annual primary energy consumption by 2020, compared with the business-as-usual scenario. The plan also looks to reinforce Europes position as a world leader in energy efficiency. It intends to mobilize the general public, market actors and policymakers, transforming the EU energy market so as to provide citizens with the most energy-efficient infrastructure, buildings, appliances, and means of transport possible. Realizing the EUs energy-saving potential will indeed require far-reaching changes in the way energy is consumed. A paradigm shift is needed in the way society behaves, so that Europeans use less energy while still enjoying the same quality of life. Producers will have to be encouraged to develop more energy efficient technologies and products, while consumers will need stronger incentives to buy such products and use them rationally. Europeans need to save energy. Europe wastes at least 20 % of the energy it uses. By saving energy, Europe will help address climate change, as well as its rising consumption, and its dependence on fossil fuels imported from outside the Unions borders, said EU Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs as the Commission presented the action plan. Energy efficiency is crucial for Europe: if we take action now, the direct cost of our energy consumption could be reduced by more than EUR 100 billion annually by 2020; around 780 million tonnes of CO2 will also be avoided yearly, the Commissioner pointed out.
  • RE thinking Energy 2017
    (Energy)
    Author: International Renewable Energy AgencyRenewable energy is a fundamental and growing part of the world's ongoing energy transformation. Governments all over the world are joining that consensus. The use of renewables is their prime choice for enhancing access to ašordable, reliable and cleaner sources of modern energy services. More than 170 countries have established renewable energy targets, and nearly 150 have enacted policies to catalyse investments in renewable energy technologies. Many are looking to partner with an increasingly active private sector. Recent studies by IRENA and its partners have shown clearly that renewables are competitive, attractive to investors and creating millions of new jobs. They present a compelling business case. This edition of REthinking Energy, the third in IRENAs series, examines the dramatic changes under way in the energy sector in many countries. Among them is the growing maturity of the renewable energy market, coupled with technology advancements and policy refinement. Together, these developments provide an opportunity to develop an energy system that underpins sustainable development objectives. The foundations exist for accelerating the global energy transition, but ešorts need to step up to achieve long-lasting change. Policy commitments still need to be strengthened, additional investments catalysed, and technological innovation fostered if new markets are to be geared up, eciency enhanced and costs driven down even further.
  • Energy Efficiency Indicators: Essentials for Policy Making
    (Energy)
    Author: International Energy AgencyCountries around the world are increasingly aware of the urgent need to transform the way they use energy. Concern over energy security, the social and economic impacts of high energy prices, and growing awareness of climate change have led many countries to put greater emphasis on developing policies and measures that promote energy efficiency. Two things have become increasingly clear: â  Ensuring better use of global energy resources will require policies that encompass a wide range of options. There is a growing recognition that improving energy efficiency is often the most economic, proven and readily available means of achieving this goal. â  Establishing and maintaining sound policies requires the availability of goodquality, timely, comparable and detailed data that go well beyond those currently included in energy balances, and which reflect the distinct characteristics of economic activity and resources available in each country.The goal of this publication is to provide the necessary tools for analysts and policy makers to prioritise the development of energy efficiency indicators, and build Introduction 15 © OECD/IEA, 2014 16 1 Introduction meaningful indicators to support policy development and implementation. This publication is complementary to the Energy Efficiency Indicators: Fundamentals on Statistics (International Energy Agency [IEA], 2014), which provides guidance to developing a data collection programme to support the development of energy efficiency indicators. This manual dedicates individual chapters to each of the end-use sectors, namely residential, services, industry, and passenger and freight transport. The chapter The IEA methodology for analysing trends in energy consumption provides an overview of the analysis methodologies recommended, and associated benefits and caveats that will apply to all end-use sectors in conjunction with each individual end-use chapter
  • Roadmap for a Renewable Energy Future, 2016 Edition
    (Energy)
    Author: International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)The 2015 United Nations Climate Conference in Paris was a watershed moment for renewable energy. It reinforced what advocates have long argued: that a rapid and global transition to renewable energy technologies offers a realistic means to achieve sustainable development and avoid catastrophic climate change. Now that renewable energy is recognised as central to achieving climate and sustainability objectives, the challenge facing governments has shifted: from identifying what needs to be done, to how best to achieve it.

 

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